HTML5 is the newest version of HTML. It offers new features to provide not only rich media support but also enhanced support for creating web applications that can interact with the user, his or her local data, and servers more easily and effectively.
Before to write about HTML5 I would like to tell you about html history.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language), is the predominant markup language for web pages. HTML is the set of markup symbols or codes use to describe web pages.
In 1991 Sir Tim Berners-Lee first mentioned it on the Internet. He wrote a document called “HTML Tags” in which he proposed near about 20 elements that could be used for writing web pages. Sir Tim Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML(Standard Generalized Markup Language). There never was an HTML 1.
In 1995, the first official specification was HTML 2.0, published by the IETF (the Internet Engineering Task Force). Many of the features in this specification were driven by existing implementations. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
And next W3C’s specification for HTML is HTML3.2, developed in early `96 together with vendors including IBM, Microsoft, Netscape Communications Corporation, Novell, SoftQuad, Spyglass, and Sun Microsystems.
HTML 3.2 adds widely deployed features such as tables, applets and text flow around images, while providing full backwards compatibility with the existing standard HTML 2.0. W3C is continuing to work with vendors on extensions for accessibility features, multimedia objects, scripting, style sheets, layout, forms, math and internationalization. W3C plans on incorporating this work in further versions of HTML.
HTML 4.0 was recommended by the W3C in December ’97 and became the official standard in April 1998. HTML 4 extends HTML with mechanisms for style sheets, scripting, frames, embedding objects, improved support for right to left and mixed direction text, richer tables, and enhancements to forms, offering improved accessibility for people with disabilities.
In late 1999 w3c published HTML 4.01. This version is a revision of HTML 4.0 that corrects errors and makes some changes since the previous revision. At that time, HTML faced its first major turning point.
After HTML 4.01, the next revision to the language was called xHTML, which was an XML version of HTML requiring XML syntax rules like quoting attributes, self-closing tags others, and the like.
In xHTML the x stood for “eXtensible” and the whole word means eXtensible HyperText Markup Language is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). No new elements or attributes were added. The only difference was in the syntax of the language. In HTML You have freedom in how to write your code but xhtml required to follow the rules of xml.
Then the W3C published xHTML 1, xHTML 1.1 was real, honest-to-goodness XML. After XHTML 1.1 W3C start working on XHTML 2, designed to lead the web to a bright new XML-based future and which was a revolutionary change to the language, in the sense that it broke backwards compatibility in the cause of becoming much more logical and better-designed.
XHTML 1, XHTML 2 wasn’t going to be backwards compatible with existing web content or even previous versions of HTML. that is the biggest problem.
Representatives from Opera, Apple,and Mozilla were unhappy with this direction and not convinced that XML was the future for all web authors. They started a small group called WHATWG (Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, in June 2004. They focused primarily on the development of HTML and APIs needed for Web applications.
WHATWG was pointedly designed to bypass Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and Sun JavaFX and return the web to its open roots. in order to achieve that goal, it needed to modernize the HTML specification, which hadn’t really progressed since 1999, While W3C continued working on XHTML 2.0, these guys(WHATWG) started working on HTML5.
In 2006, Sir Tim Berners-Lee wrote a blog post in which he admitted that the attempt to move the web from HTML to XML just wasn’t working and after some month the W3C indicated an interest to participate in the development of HTML5, and in 2007 formed a working group chartered to work with the WHATWG on the development of the HTML5 specification.
In 2008 the first draft of html5 is published. and finally In 2009, the W3C stopped work on XHTML 2.0 and announced that the charter for XHTML 2 would not be renewed and diverted resources to HTML5 and it was clear that HTML5 had won the battle of philosophies: purity of design, even if it breaks backwards-compatibility, versus pragmatism and “not breaking the Web.”
Introduction to HTML 5
We’ll discuss further about html5 in the next upcoming aricle.